Hinduism --- Apartheid of the Gods?
There is a wide diversity of beliefs among the different sects, or outright religions, of Hinduism, but there is a lot of commonalty in behavior. This paper focuses on what is common to the 590 million people in all the sects except where noted. Three key features of Hinduism are the caste system, transmigration of the soul, and the Hindu debts and goals. To understand the caste system, one must go back to its origins around 1800 B.C.
The Origins of Hinduism
Many students know of only four birthplaces of civilization: Sumer, Egypt, China, and the Indus valley Harappans in modern day Pakistan and India. The Harappans, at their height around 2000 B.C., had hundreds of towns and covered around half a million square miles. Archaeologists have discovered a fifth birthplace of civilization that appears almost as old as Egypt; the Aryans, east of the Caspian Sea.
Like the Egyptians and Sumerians, the light-skinned Aryans relied on irrigation to farm. They left behind artwork and they were relatively highly developed in one area: war. Unlike the Harappans, they had horse drawn carts, similar to chariots. For unknown reasons, around 1800 B.C. the twenty-two tribes of Aryans migrated en masse to the southwest and wiped out the in some ways more sophisticated dark-skinned Harappan civilization. Generally conquerors and the conquered gradually mix together, but in this case that only happened to a small degree due to a new religion: Hinduism.
At the heart of all sects of Hinduism is the caste system. Most of mankind is divided into four castes from birth: the priests or Brahmans, the warriors of Kshatriyas, the common people of Vaishya, and the servants of Shudras. A fifth class of people are said to be without caste, the Harijan, or untouchables. The other castes have to be careful of these, because their mere presence is spiritually polluting to members of the other castes. Whatever caste one is born in, he or she will die in. According to Hinduism all is not hopeless of those of low caste however, for if they keep their place in society and carry out what is required of them, they have the hope of being born into a higher caste in the next life.
Hindus believe in reincarnation, but their belief is slightly different from Buddhists'. Hindus simply believe people, animals, are reincarnated into a higher or lower state depending on what they merited in their past life. Good Hindus eat no meat whatsoever, but even not so good Hindus do not eat the animal they hold sacred: cows. Though it is inconsistent, some Hindus who would never eat an animal have animal sacrifices in temples. Hindus apparent reverence for all life has not seemed to diminish the violence and wars among themselves. Indeed, inconsistent though it is, Hinduism started with the destruction of the Harappan civilization. Though we cannot go back and ask why they made the caste system, it has been effective in keeping the darker skinned "Harappans" of India today "in their place are the farmers, servants, and garbage collectors.
In the original Hinduism of the Vedas. The three highest gods were Indra the king, Brahma, and Sakti (a female). There are many of other minor gods and goddesses, but many other deities of Hinduism, such as Ganesha and Krishna, are absent in the original Vedic Hinduism.
It is different in classical Hinduism. The triad of the three highest gods of classical Hinduism are Brahma the creator, who allegedly has made at least ten appearances or incarnations as avatars, Vishnu the Preserver, and Shiva the destroyer. Vishnu and Shiva apparently are worshipped. Shiva and his followers could be very violent, as the Srimad-Bhagavatam fourth cantu 2.48 to 7.17 shows. Shiva is the one famous for the pictures of him with his many arms dancing on the back of what looks like a small baby. One Hinduism explanation is that the Baby is really a dwarf. A second Hindu explanation is that it is really a baby, but it shows that Shiva can dance on the baby without hurting him. The goddess Kali is also popularly worshipped; she dances on the corpses of those she has slain. Some worship that which they believe destroys them more than that which loves or preserves them.
The Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge p.392 says that today the highest importance is given to three deities: Siva, Vishnu, and Sakti. Sakti is a general name for female deities. Parvati, the consort of Siva/Shiva, is especially worshipped.
Hindus have many writings and scriptures, but most Hindus have not read them. The four main scriptures are called Vedas, written between 1800 and 900 B.C. The four Vedas are the Rig-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama-Veda, and Atharva-Veda. There are a large number of additional writings that various groups have added including the Brahmanas, Mahabharata and Ramayana.
One thing Christians, Jews, and even Moslems and Confucianists all share is a desire to do "good." Hinduism has a variety of opinion, click here for Hindu teaching that talks of transcending good and evil. Click on the link for historical accounts of Hindu teachers deliberately misleading others.
Most Hindus believe they have three debts and three goals. The three debts are
1) to scholars to learn the Vedas,
2) to ancestors to produce a son, and
3) to gods to provide sacrifices.
Few Hindus have read the Vedas though. Hindu men have three goals:
1) Material success,
2) Moral uprightness in society, and
3) Sensual pleasure.
Many Hindus have a fourth goal. These people are "renouncers" and strive not to be reincarnated, but to escape the cycle of reincarnation and be free of the three debts and the other three goals. There are some similarities to Buddhism here, except that renouncers are extreme ascetics and Buddha himself tried that path and turned away.
Note that many Hindus believe gods and demons have much longer lifespans, but they die and are incarnated many times too. For example, Vishnu is thought to have had ten major incarnations: fish, tortoise, man-lion, boar, dwarf, Parasu-Rama, Rama, Krishna, Buddha, and (future) Khalki. Shiva, appearing as Sarabhesa murthy, fought and killed Narasimha, an incarnation of Vishnu. Does a Hindu personally believe the killed demons and gods cease to exist, do they go to a place of no return, or are they reincarnated? You might ask and see what they say.
Later Vedanta Hinduism
In 583 B.C. an event occurred which rocked Hinduism to its core; it had competition. A guy named Buddha claimed to receive the "Great Enlightenment" and that Hinduism was wrong and his way, the "Middle Path" between ascetism and pleasure, was right. ~560 B.C., all of India became Buddhist, at least according to the King's view. While many parts of Hinduism did not change much, new scriptures and new schools of Hinduism were started that smoothed out some of the rough edges of Hinduism. By 700-1100 A.D. Hinduism won back the hearts of the Indian people and rulers. Today there are ~590 million Hindus. For reference, there are 150-350 million Buddhists and over 1 billion who claim to be Christians.
Around 600-500 B.C., another scripture for most Hindus, the Upanishads, was written. The Mundaka Upanishad refer to the four Vedas as merely among the "lower truths". Non-Hindus would claim Vedanta Hinduism borrowed from Buddhism to try to "steal its thunder." However, a Hindu told me, "Hindus do not steal thunder. We absorb the teaching of others to better our lives. No one denies this. Buddha was a Hindu Avatar of Vishnu. He came to teach the Hindus." I do not know how many Hindus (if any) have read Buddha's own teachings, the Tripitaka, though. The Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge p.392 says, "By this mechanism of avatar, Buddhism could be partly absorbed into Vaishnavism".
The god Krishna himself in the Bhagavad Gita counsels the brothers of Pandara to go to war to kill their own cousins, everything in the universe is illusion, and so they cannot really die anyway. Besides, they can be reincarnated. For non-Hindus, isn't it a relief you do not have to worship idols you have to make apologies for?
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Quotes from Hindu Scriptures
Once the Christian preacher Dr. E. Stanley Jones was addressing a University in India on Christ. After he finished, the Hindu president of the University stood up and said, "If what this man says is not true, then it doesn't matter. But if what he says is true, then nothing else matters." (from Billy Graham Approaching Hoofbeats p.189)
There are some statements in Hindu scriptures that some would find surprising.
"...Whosoever follows a false doctrine of the Self will perish." Chandogya Upanishad p.77 (the sage Prajapati was speaking)
"Living in the abyss of ignorance yet wise in their own conceit, deluded fools go around and around, the blind led by the blind." Katha Upanishad p.17
"The good is one thing; the pleasant is another. These two, differing in their ends, both prompt to action. Blessed are they that choose the good; they that choose the pleasant miss the goal." Katha Upanishad p.16
"Men of small intelligence worship the demigods, and their fruits are limited and temporary. Those who worship the demigods go to the planets of the demigods, but My [Krishna's] devotees ultimately reach My supreme planet." B.G. 7.20-23 p.394-399
Hinduism on Hinduism
"Men of small knowledge are very much attached to the flowery words of the Vedas, which recommend various fruitive activities for elevation to heavenly planets, resultant good birth, power, and so forth...." B.G. 2.43 p.129-130
For those who minds are attached to the unmanifested, impersonal feature of the Supreme, advancement is very troublesome. To make progress in that discipline [Upani-shadic Hinduism] is always difficult for those who are embodied." B.G. 12.5 p.616
"O son of Prtha [Arjuna], in this world there are two kinds of created beings. One is called the divine and the other demoniac. I have already explained to you at length the divine qualities. Now hear from Me of the demoniac. Those who are demoniac do not know what is to be done and what is not to be done. Neither cleanliness nor proper behavior nor truth is found in them. They say that this world is unreal, with no foundation, no God in control. They say it is produced of sex desire and has no cause other than lust." B.G. 16.6-8 p.749-751
"Men in the mode of goodness worship the demigods; those in the mode of passion worship the demons; and those in the mode of ignorance worship ghosts and spirits. Those who undergo severe austerities and penances not recommended in the scriptures, performing them out of pride and egoism, who are impelled by lust and attachment, who are foolish and who torture the material elements of the body as well as the Supersoul dwelling within, are to be known as demons. B.G. 17.4-6 p.773-775.
"...Neither the demigods nor the demons, O Lord [Krishna], can understand Your personality." B.G. 10.14 p.525
"Because Bhagavad-Gita is spoken by the Supreme Personal-ity of Godhead, one need not read any other Vedic literature. One need only attentively and regularly read Bhagavad-Gita." A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Bhagavad-Gita As It Is p.32. Introduction
Sacrifices were very important in early Hinduism. The Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge p.392 says animal sacrifice is still very common today in south India among sects that worship Kali.
"The wedding procession of Surya went forward as Savitr sent it off. When the sun is in Agha they kill the cattle, and when it is in Arjuni she[the bride] is brought home." Rig Veda 10.85.13. There is a dual context of the marriage of Surya the daughter of the sun and human marriages modeled after that.
"Finite and transient are the fruits of sacrificial rites. The deluded, who regard them as the highest good, remain subject to birth and death." Mundaka Upanishad p.44.
"He, O Gargi, who in this world, without knowing this Akshara [changeless reality], offers oblations, performs sacrifices, practices austerities, even though for many thousands of years, gains little: his offerings and practices are perishable. He, O Gargi, who departs this life without knowing the Imperishable, is pitiable. But he, O Gargi, who departs this life knowing the Akshara, is wise." Brihadaranyaka Upanishad p.98.
From the Horse sacrifice in the Rig Veda
"Whatever food remains in his stomach, sending forth gas, or whatever smell there is from his raw flesh - let the slaughterers make that well done; let them cook the sacrificial animal until he is perfectly cooked. Whatever runs off your body when it has been placed on the spit and roasted by the fire, let it not lie there in the earth or on the grass, but let it be given to the gods who long for it. Those who see that the racehorse is cooked, who say, 'It smells good! Take it away!', and who wait for the doling out of the flesh of the charger - let their approval encourage us." Rig Veda 1.162.10-12. p.90.
"For the emperor I will sing a splendid, deep prayer, one that will be dear to the famous Varuna who struck apart the earth and spread it beneath the sun as the priest who performs the slaughter spreads out the victim's skin. Rig Veda 3.85.1.
Even today, the Vamacharis sacrifice kids (goat, not human) and water buffalo. Thuggees and Khonds sacrificed people.
Present at many religious occasions was a hallucinogenic drink called Soma. We do not know exactly what Soma was, but it was made from a leafless plant. It was either a real plant, a fungus, or possibly a mushroom. Soma supposedly gave access to the gods, and Rig Veda records many personal experiences of its effects, perhaps many parts of its were written under the influence of soma.
"Stretching out in flight, holding the stem, the eagle brought the exhilarating and intoxicating drink from the distance. Accompanied by the gods, the bird clutched the Soma tightly after he took it from that highest heaven. When the eagle had taken the Soma, he brought it for a thousand and ten thousand pressings at once [Soma is made by pressing the plant against stones]. The bringer of abundance left his enemies behind there; ecstatic with Soma, the wise one left the fools." Rig Veda 4.26.6-7 p.129
"This, yes, this is my thought: I will win a cow and a horse. Have I not drunk Soma? Like impetuous winds, the drinks have lifted me up. Have I not drunk Soma? The drinks have lifted me up, like swift horses bolting with a chariot. Have I not drunk Soma? I turn the prayer around in my heart, as a wheelwright turns a chariot seat. Have I not drunk Soma? The five tribes are no more to me than a mote in the eye. Have I not drunk Soma? The two world halves cannot be set against a single wing of mine. Have I not drunk Soma? In my vastness, I surpassed the sky and this vast earth. Have I not drunk Soma? Yes! I will place the earth here, or perhaps there. Have I not drunk Soma? I will thrash the earth soundly, here, or perhaps there, Have I not drunk Soma? One of my wings is in the sky; I have trailed the other below. Have I not drunk Soma? I am huge, huge! flying to the cloud. Have I not drunk Soma? I am going - a well-stocked house, carrying the oblation to the gods. Have I not drunk Soma?" Rig Veda 10.119.1-13 (all) p.131-132.
Castes : Apartheid of the Gods?
A key reason for Hinduism in 1800 B.C. was to keep the darker skinned people in the place and forbid intermarriage with the lighter skinned conquerors. The first surviving reference to the caste system is in the Rig-Veda.
"When they divided the Man, into how many parts did they apportion him? What do they call his mouth, his two arms and thighs and feet? His mouth became the Brahmin; his arms were made into the Warrior [Kshatriyas], his thighs the People [vaisya], and from his feet the Servants [Sudras] were born." Rig Veda 10.90.11-12 p.31.
"O son of Prtha [Arjuna], those who take shelter in Me [Krsna], though they be of lower birth -- women, vaisyas [merchants] and sudras [workers]--can attain the supreme destination. How much more this is so of the righteous brahmanas, the devotees and the saintly kings. Therefore, having come to this temporary, miserable world, engage in loving service to me." B.G. 9.32-33 p.497-498
"The humble sages, by virtue of true knowledge, see with equal vision a learned and gentle brahmana, a cow, an elephant, a dog, and a dog-eater [outcaste person]." B.G. 5.18 p.293
One of the most important concepts in Upanishadic and later Hinduism is the self. There is the personal self, inside every being, which is like a spark of the universal self called Brahman. Brahman is impersonal, but in a few forms of Hinduism has a personal part too.
"The Imperishable is the Real. As sparks innumerable fly up-ward from a blazing fire, so from the depths of the Imperishable arise all things. To the depths of the imperishable they in turn descend." Mundaka Upanishad p.44-45.
An important part of early Hinduism that survived into later Hinduism is the principle of reincarnation: spiritual recycling.
"This vast universe is a wheel. Upon it are all creatures that are subject to birth, death, and rebirth. Round and round it turns, and never stops. It is the wheel of Brahman. As long as the individual self thinks it is separate from Brahman, it revolves upon the wheel in bondage to the laws of birth, death, and rebirth." Svetasvatara Upanishad p.118
"Of those ignorant of the Self, some enter into beings possessed of wombs, others enter into plants--according to their deeds and the growth of their intelligence. Katha Upanishad p.22.
"It is written: 'He who knows the joy of Brahman, which words cannot express and the mind cannot reach, is free from fear. He is not distressed by the thought, 'Why did I not do what is right? Why did I do what is wrong? He who knows the joy of Brahman, knowing both good and evil, transcends both." Taittiriya Upanishad p.58.
"Know that all states of being-be they of goodness, passion or ignorance--are manifested by My energy. I am, in one sense, everything, but I am independent. I am not under the modes of material nature, for they, on the contrary, are within Me. Deluded by the three modes [goodness, passion and ignorance], the whole world does not know Me, who am above the modes and inexhaustible" B.G. 7.12-13 p.379-380.
"Even if one commits the most abominable action, if he is engaged in devotional service he is to be considered saintly because he is properly situated in his determination." B.G. 9.30 p.494
"My sons kill their enemies and my daughter is an empress, and I am completely victorious. My voice is supreme in my husband's ears. The oblation that Indra made and so became glorious and supreme, this is what I have made for you O gods. I have truly become truly without rival wives. Without rival wives, killer of rival wives, victorious and pre-eminent, I have grabbed for myself the attraction of the other women as if it were the wealth of flighty women." Rig Veda 10.159.3-5.
The Bhagavad-Gita, Arjuna does not want to kill his cousins. Krishna tells him to kill them because
"O descendant of Bharata [Arjuna] he who dwells in the body can never be slain. Therefore you need no grieve for any living being. Considering your specific duty as a ksatriya, you should know that there is no better engagement for you than fighting on religious principles; and so there is no need for hesitation. O Partha, happy are the ksatriyas to whom such fighting opportunities come unsought, opening for them the doors of the heavenly planets. If, however, you do not perform your religious duty of fighting, then you will certainly incur sins for neglecting your duties and thus lose your reputation as a fighter. People will always speak of your infamy, and for a respectable person, dishonor is worse than death. The great generals who have highly esteemed your name and fame will think that you have left the battlefield out of fear only, and thus they will consider you insignificant. Your enemies will describe you in many unkind words and scorn your ability. What could be more painful for you? O son of Kunti [Arjuna], either you will be killed on the battlefield and attain the heavenly planets, or you will conquer and enjoy the earthly kingdom. Therefore, get up with determination and fight." Bhagavad-Gita 2.30-37 p.114-121. Some see this as cold-blooded.
"Do not burn him entirely, Agni, or engulf him in your flames. Do not consume his skin or his flesh. When you have cooked him perfectly, O knower of creatures, only then send him forth to the fathers. When you cook him perfectly, O knower of creatures, then give him over to the fathers...." Rig Veda 10.16.1-2 p.49
"And whoever, at the end of his life, quits his body, remembering Me alone, at once attains My nature. Of this there is no doubt. Whatever state of being one remembers when he quits his body, O son of Kunti [Arjuna], that state he will attain without fail. Therefore, Arjuna, you should always think of Me in the form of Krsna and at the same time carry out your prescribed duty of fighting. With your activities dedicated to Me and your mind and intelligence fixed on Me, you will attain Me without doubt." B.G. 8:5-7, p.419-421.
"Those who study the Vedas and drink the soma juice, seeking the heavenly planets, worship Me indirectly. Purified of sinful reactions, they take birth on the pious, heavenly planet of Indra, where they enjoy godly delights. When they have thus enjoyed vast heavenly sense pleasure and the results of their pious activities are exhausted, they return to this mortal planet again. Thus those who seek sense enjoyment by adhering to the principles of the three Vedas achieve only repeated birth and death. But those who always worship Me [Krsna] with exclusive devotion, meditating on My transcendental form--to them I carry what they lack, and I preserve what they have. Those who are devotees of other gods and who worship them with faith actually worship only Me, o son of Kunti [Arjuna], but they do so in a wrong way. I am the only enjoyer and master of all sacrifices. Therefore, those who do not recognize My true transcendental nature fall down." B.G. 9.21-24 p.481-485.
The Bhagavad Gita Has Many Pregnant Ideas
"The total material substance, called Brahman, is the source of birth, and it is that Brahman that I impregnate, making possible the births of all living beings, O son of Bharata [Arjuna]. It should be understood that all species of life, O son of Kunti, are made possible by birth in this material nature, and that I am the seed-giving father." B.G. 3-4 p.684-685
Will the Real Supreme God Please Stand Up?
Indria was the king of gods in the original Vedic Hinduism. Today Brahman is the ultimate realility behind the gods. On the other hand, The Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge p.392 says that it is Siva that is the Supreme deity according to Shaivism, and it is Vishnu that is the Supreme deity according to Vaishnavism. Also, Hare Krishna hold to Krishna as Supreme, not Brahman.
In the Kena Upanishad, Indra, and the gods of fire and wind did not recognize Brahman. Brahman talked with them. So Brahman one who can talk and disagree with beings.
"That which cannot be expressed in words but by which the tongue speaks--know that to be Brahman. Brahman is not the being who is worshiped of men. That which is not compre-hended by the mind but by which the mind comprehends--know that to be Brahman. Brahman is no the being who is worshiped of men. That which is not seen by the eye but by which the eye sees--know that to be Brahman. Brahman is not the being who is worshiped of men. That which is not heard by the ear (etc.) Brahman is not the being who is worshiped of men. That which is not drawn by breath (etc.). Brahman is not the being who is worshipped of men." Kena Upanishad p.30-31.
"I am the Supersoul, O Arjuna, seated in the hearts of all living entities. I am the beginning, the middle and the end of all beings. Of the Adityas I am Vishnu, of lights I am the radiant sun, of the Maruts I am Marici, and among the stars I am the moon. Of the Vedas I am the Sama Veda; of the demigods I am Indra, the king of heaven; of the senses I am the mind; and in living beings I am the living force [consciousness]. Of all the Rudras I am Lord Siva, of the Yaksas and Raksasas I am the Lord of wealth [Kuvera], of the Vasus I am fire [Agni], and of the mountains I am Meru." B.G. 10.20-23 p.532-535. It continues in the same way. I am all-devouring death, and I am the generating principle of all that is yet to be. Among women I am fame, fortune, fine speech, memory, intelligence, steadfastness and patience." B.G. 10.34 p.544. Krishna has a rather positive self-image.
"But of all gods Indra is supreme, for he approached nearest of the three [Indra, fire, wind] to Brahman and was the first of the three to recognize him." Katha Upanishad p.32.
"Assuredly all is Brahman. Let a man, freed from the taint of passion, worship Brahman alone." Chandogya Upanishad p.64.
Deceptive Teachers in Hinduism
In the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, deliberately false teaching about Brahman is written down. We know this, because it first gives Gargya's teaching on Brahman, and then teaches "Nay, nay! Do not speak thus of Brahman." Now to give false teaching, but to immediately correct it, is a style of teaching what is believed to be true. There is nothing wrong with that. But what about giving deliberately no-good and useless teaching, and not correcting it?
In the Chandogya Upanishad p.76-77 the renowned teacher Prajapati taught Indra the god and Virochana the demon for 32 years what was stated to be false information about the self. After they left, "But Prajapati, looking after them, lamented thus: 'Both of them departed without analyzing or discriminating, and without truly comprehending the Self. Whosoever follows a false doctrine of the Self will perish." Chandogya Upanishad p.77 After that, Indra realized that was false, and returned to Prajapati, who taught Indra is different doctrine for 32 years, which was also false. After that Indra realized that was no-good and useless, and returned to Prajapati for another 32 years. Prajapati then taught him a different doctrine, which was also no-good and useless. Finally, Prajapati spent 5 years teaching Indra the highest truth of the Self.
Do You Look Forward to Being Dissolved and Absorbed?
"As the bees make honey by gathering juices from many flowering plants and trees, and as these juices reduced to one honey do not know from what flowers they severally come, similarly, my son, all creatures, when they are merged in that one Existence, whether in dreamless sleep or in death, know nothing of their past or present state, because of the ignorance enveloping them--know not that they are merged in him and that from him they came." Chandogya Upanishad p.69
The Chandogya Upanishad goes on to explain that the Self is like the fruit of a Myagrodha tree. Inside are extremely small seeds, and when you break them open, there is nothing inside. Also the Self is like salt put in water is the Brahman in all things.
Yagnavalkya is speaking to his wife, Maitreyi "As a lump of salt when thrown into water melts away and the lump cannot be taken out, but wherever we taste the water it is salty, even so, O Maitreyi, the individual self, dissolved, is the Eternal--pure consciousness of the many, in divine illumination, it disappears. Where there is consciousness of the Self, individuality is no more." Brihadaranyaka Upanishad p.88.
Food for Thought - Brahman is Hungry
"To him [Brahman] the Brahmins and Kshatriyas are but food, and death itself the condiment [that is, spice]." Katha Upanishad p.19
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead [Krishna] said,: Time I am, the great destroyer of the worlds, and I have come here to destroy all people. With the exception of you [the Panda-vas], all the soldiers here on both sides will be slain." B.G. 11:33 p.577.
O'Flaherty, Wendy Doniger The Rig Veda : An Anthology Penguin Books 1981, 1984 ~1400-800 B.C.
Prabhavananda, Swami and Frederick Manchester The Upanishads : Breath of the Eternal Mentor Book (c) 1948 The Vedanta Society of Southern California ~800-400 B.C.
Prabhupada, A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Bhagavad-Gita As It Is Bhaktivedanta Book Trust 1986-1993. ~500 B.C.
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The Many Faces of Hinduism
Hinduism is the third largest religions of the world, with over 750 million devotees. Perhaps once way to be introduced to Hinduism is to take the following test. Please answer which beliefs are Hindu and which are not.
T or F ___ 1. Eating dung and drinking urine is impure.
T or F ___ 2. Cow dung is purifying to eat, and many should rink one cup of urine every day.
T or F ___ 3. One ought to have three horizontal stripes of cow-dung on your forehead.
T or F ___ 4. One should have respect for all life, not kill anything or anyone, and eat no meat.
T or F ___ 5. One should make the horse-sacrifice so revered in the Rig-Veda
T or F ___ 6. One should make human sacrifices to Kali.
T or F ___ 7. It may be one's purpose duty-bound destiny to kill other people.
T or F ___ 8. Shiva is the Supreme god to worship. Sometimes it is good to kill those who worship Vishnu.
T or F ___ 9. Vishnu is the main god to worship. Sometimes it is good to kill those who worship Shiva.
T or F ___ 10. Indra is the main god to worship.
T or F ___ 11. There are at most 330 million gods to honor and worship.
T or F ___ 12. It is best to worship none but Krishna.
T or F ___ 13. Buddhism is just another school of Hinduism.
T or F ___ 14. Buddhists are infidels who should be persecuted and killed.
T or F ___ 15. Single people should abstain from sex; married people should remain faithful.
T or F ___ 16. Sex with many partners, and even incest, is the way to truly know God.
T or F ___ 17. After a husband dies, the wife should commit suicide by throwing herself to death on the funeral pyre.
The answer is that all the above are true according to various schools of Hinduism.
1.A common belief of many Hindus.
2. The former Indian Prime Minister Desai drank a cup of urine every day, as is common with holy men in India. Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge p.391 says cow dung used in cleansing. Funk and Wagnall's Encyclopedia says many yogies eat ordure [dung].
3. Many Shaivites practice this distinctive feature of Shaivism.
4. Many ascetic Hindus, especially many Brahmans, believe this. Some stress ahimsa (non-violence).
5. Rig Veda 1.162.10-12 p.90 and Rig Veda 3.85.1. Today some Sakta sects, Vamacharis, and many southern Indian Hindus make animal sacrifices.
6. Thuggees strangled men as acts of devotion to Kali (Durga) as they revered her symbol; the pickaxe by which they dug their victims' graves. Thuggees had close to total immunity from the law until 1829. Khonds killed people as slowly as possible
7. Bhagavad Gita 2.30-37; 9.30 Rig Veda 10.159.3-5. Thuggees and Khonds murdered ordinary people at religious acts.
8 and 9. The Shaivite sects worship Shiva (in one of his forms) as the main god. The Vishnaite sects worship Vishnu as the main god. The Shaivites and Vishnaites fought among each other, particularly near the end of the Chola Empire.
10. Katha Upanishad p.32 and Rig Veda 10.159.3-5.
11. This is counting every local village deity. The Encyclopedia Britannica estimated that 80% of southern Indians worshipped a local female goddess (grama-devata).
12. B.G. 9.13-14, 21-24; B.G. 8.5-7, 10.20-23.
13. Orthodox Hinduism considers Buddha the 9th avatar (incarnation) of Vishnu. Vishnu/Buddha's teaching (at least according to Hindus), was primarily to remind people to be kind to animals.
14. Buddhists were violently persecuted in India by religious Hindus. The first known time was 82-72 B.C.
15. Many Hindus of different sects believe this.
16. Tantric Hinduism believes these and Kundalini yoga is also very sexual.
17. This gruesome practice, called Suttee, was one of the few practices almost all Hindus had in common until the British outlawed it.
Strictly speaking, Hinduism should not be called a religion. As John B. Noss says, "It is not one religion, but rather a family of religions." (Man's Religions, 1969 p.88.)www.BibleQuery.org.
Glossary of Hindu Terms
Agni - early Hindu god of fire.
Apsaras- Shapely heavenly damsels for heavenly sensual pleasures.
Arjuna - main human character of the Bhagavad Gita
Aryans - A light skinned people, closely related to the Iranians, that invaded from the their homeland east of the Caspian Sea around 1800 B.C..
Atharva Veda - One of four early Hindu scriptures.
Bhagavad Gita - a scripture of Hinduism, likened by some to the New Testament of Christianity. Some Hari Krishnas teach you should read no other Hindu scripture. Other Hindus do not consider the Bhagavad-Gita to even be a valid scripture.
Bhagavad Gita - As It Is - The Hari Krishna translation of the Bhagavad Gita, which other Hindus claim emphasizes Krishna more than the original, and Hari Krishnas emphasize is the only Bhagavad-Gita in English you should read..
Brahma - The creator god and one of the three major gods of modern Hinduism.
Brahmin - a male member of the highest caste.
Brahmana - a female member of the highest caste.
Brahman - Unknown in Vedic Hinduism, Brahman is the ultimate reality, the name of the universal self. All and everyone is a part of Brahmin, though many do not realize it.
Bungees - untouchables, outcastes.
Caste System - In Hinduism a divinely sanctioned.
Devatah - Sanskrit for demigods.
Dharma - Duty, an important concept in Hinduism.
Dogeater - synonym for outcaste.
Dravidians - Dark-skinned, these pre-Aryan inhabitants of India and Pakistan had a level of civilization comparable to the Sumerians and Egyptians.
Evil - A nebulous concept in Hinduism. Many Hindus would deny it exists, others would equate it with ignorance and passion, others would accept it and try to be beyond good and evil, and a few Hindus would try to experience evil as much as experiencing good.
Ganesh (Ganesa) - Elephant headed god of impossible situations. A few believe him to be the supreme deity, but to most he is a popular but minor god.
Gargi - a personal name
Ghee - Clarified butter, prized as a delicacy
Hanuman - Monkey god
Hari Krishna - A sect of Hinduism that believes Krishna is the highest God and the Bhagavad Gita is the only Hindu scripture they need to read.
Hinduism - Not a belief, but a menagerie of many different and partially conflicting religions. Historically some things all these religions have in common are the caste system, Vedas, reincarnation, and suttee.
Hinduism, Vedic - The earliest known form of Hinduism. Has many similarities to Greco-Roman mythology.
Hinduism, Vedantic (or Upanishadic) - More philosophical than Vedic and focuses on both the gods and Brahman as the Supreme god who contains all.
Indra - Supreme god of Vedic Hinduism, god of war, and national god of the Aryans. With his thunderbolts in his hands, most think he and the Greek god Zeus had common origin. He is all but forgotten in modern Hinduism.
Indo-European Languages - A family of languages that linguists think go back 6000 years. Around 2000 B.C. the Western and Eastern branches split. Around 1000 B.C. the Indic and Iranian branches were totally separate. Vedic Sanskrit, and Avestan Iranian, were both around 1800 B.C. and are similar to each other.
Kali/Devi - Wife of Shiva/Siva the destroyer, Kali dances on the corpses she kills.
Karma - Roughly the law of cause and effect. The good things you do will come back to you in a beneficial way. The bad things you do will come back to haunt you. Some might equate it with poetic justice. As one Hindu said, if you have an abortion, then you will be reincarnated as an aborted fetus. This differs slightly from the Buddhist concept of Karma.
Krishna - Krishna was an early pre-Hindu Dravidian god considered a demon by the Aryans. Later he become one of the most beloved gods, known as the Cosmic Lover, both because of tales of his sex life and the wide devotion many have for him. Most Hindus consider him an incarnation of Vishnu, though a few consider Vishnu an incarnation of Krishna and Krishna the Supreme god.
Krsna - Alternate spelling for Krishna
Kshatriyas - The warrior caste of Hinduism. Kshatriyas are primarily of Aryan ancestry.
Kunti - A nickname of Arjuna of the Bhagavad Gita.
Kuvera - god of wealth.
Lakshmi - A popular goddess of luck.
Law of Non-Contradiction - If A is true, then A is not false. If A exists, then A cannot not exist. Hinduism often violates this basic principle.
Mahabharata - The Epic of the Bharata family. An important scripture in "Epic Hinduism."
Maruts - In early Hinduism the gods of storm thunder, closely associated with the Supreme god, Indra.
New Age - A heterogeneous mixture of many small religions that have been greatly influenced by Hinduism. New Age typically differs from Hinduism in having a western, not eastern concept of reincarnation and a silence or rejection of the caste system.
Oblation - means sacrifice. In Hinduism often of clarified butter or Soma.
Pandavas - Arjuna's clan
Pantheism - The belief that all is God.
Prajapati - A wise sage and Lord of creatures.
Prtha - Nickname for Arjuna of the Bhagavad Gita
Pundit - A person who has the job of keeping the temple clean. He gets to eat the sacrifices people bring.
Rama - Seventh incarnation of Vishnu and hero of the epic the Ramayana
Ramayana - Along with the Mahabharata, one of the two largest epics of Hinduism.
Reincarnation, Hindu - Anything can be reincarnated as anything.
Reincarnation, Western - People can only be re-incarnated as people.
Reincarnation, Buddhist - Anything can be reincarnated as anything, but our souls are constantly changing, so in a sense your next reincarnation is not exactly the you or a previous reincarnation.
Reincarnation, Ghulat (Mideastern) - Anything can be reincarnated as anything; people can even be reincarnated as piles of trash.
Rig Veda - (Rg Veda, Rik Veda) The earliest Hindu scripture, probably written about 1400 B.C. It has ten books and either 1028 or 1017 hymns.
Sama (Samur) Veda - One of four early Hindu scriptures.
Sanskrit - The language of the Aryan invaders. Linguists see a common origin for Sanskrit, Iranian, and southern European languages. Hence all these languages are called Indo-European
Self, Personal - That which is us, our consciousness, and our individuality. Our individuality, and separateness, is really an illusion though.
Self, Impersonal - Same as the Supersoul or Brahman. All the universe is the Impersonal Self, and the real key in Hinduism is realizing there is really no difference between your personal self and the impersonal self which is the universe.
Siva (Shiva) - Mentioned only as a quality in Vedic Hinduism, Siva is the destroyer god in classical Hindiusm. He is worshipped as the highest God by Shaivites. He is usually worshipped as a phallus (male sexual organ)
Soma - a leafless plant with hallucinogenic effects. The Rig Veda often speaks of Soma as a way of being close to the gods.
Sudras - The servant caste in Hinduism. The Sudras are of Dravidian ancestry.
Supersoul - A synonym for that which all the universe is. It is a synonym for Brahmin, except that Hari Krishnas believe that Krishna is a name for the Supersoul too.
Surya - sun god, or daughter of the sun god. Cattle were slaughtered in her honor
Suttee - A practice of a widow burning to death on her husband's funeral fire. Until the British outlawed this practice, this was a practice all Hindus had in common. One Hindu man thought this was started after the Muslims came to prevent the women from falling into the hands of Muslims. However, this is not true. The first reference I know of to Hindu wives being burned when their husbands have died is (154-224-232 A.D.) in Bardesan's Book of Laws of Diverse Countries p.732.
Swarga - Heaven of the gods. A very sensual place.
Tantric Hinduism - A group that usually sexual practices in their worship. Most other Hindus deny that Tantric Hinduism is a true form of Hinduism.
Thuggee - An unusual sect of Hinduism
Untouchables - Outcastes - dogeaters, bungees. Hindus other castes are not supposed to come near them. Hindus can freely associate with non-Hindus however.
Upanishads - Key scripture of later Vedantic Hinduism.
Vaisya - Merchant class.
Varuna - early Hindu god of natural and moral order.
Vedas - The four earliest scriptures of Hinduism. They are the Rig (Rik), Ather, Samur (Sama), and Yajur Vedas.
Vishnu - The Creator God, who with three steps measured out the universe.
Yajur Veda - One of four scriptures of early Hinduism.
Zoroastrianism - An early religion of Iran. Like early Hinduism, Zoroastrians knew of Indra, but Zoroastrians called Indra an evil demon.
Vak - Goddess of voice, similar to the Latin Vox.
Vedic deities - These are the gods found in the Vedas. Brahman is absent, and Siva/Shiva is only mentioned as an attribute.
Adityas (6 deities in the Rig Veda, 8 in most of the
Brahmanas, and 12 in the Satapatha Brahmana) They ruled the skies, watched the world, and knew all of the deeds. The include Mitra, Anyman, Bhaga, Varung, Amsha, Tvashtri, Pushan, Vivasvat, Savitri, Shakra, and Vishnu.
Agni (fire god)
Dyaush-pita (sky father)
Indra (War God, with a thunderbolt like Zeus)
Kubera (material wealth
Manu - the Hindu Noah
Prithivi mata - earth mother
Rudras - 8 deities Rudra is the god of storms
Sanjna goddess of conscience and a wife of surya
Sarasvati - wife of Brahma
Soma - god of speech, soma plant. He later became the moon god
Surya - sun god
Ushas - goddess of dawn
Varuna - God of oceans and rain. In later times he became the god of death
Vasus (8 deities)
Vayu - wind god and bearer of perfumes
Visvedevas (10 deities)
Vritr - evil destructive snake who started the creation of the world, and causes famines
Yama - god of death and the mind
Yami - queen of the river Yamuna
For more info see:
Non-Vedic deities include Brahman,
Ganesh/Ganesa - elephant headed god
Parvati (wife of Shiva)
Lakishmi - wealth
1800 B.C. Settlements Found from India to the Uzbekistan
This section shows there was sub-stantial human population in the area bounded by Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Northeast Iran just prior to the Aryan invasion of India.
Balkh (Bakhidium Sariram) 40
Der Morasi Ghunah 40
1 gold mine 2
Altyn Tepe 40
Annau (Anau) 40
Gepksyur [oasis] 40
Hesar Metal Hord 2
Ulug Depe 40
4 Copper mines 8
4 gold mines 16
2 tin mines 4
lapis lazuli mine
Dashliji tepe (Dashli?) 30
Sutkagan Dor (Harappan) 8
Kabul -1800 BC 30
Kara tepe 8
Mullali tepe 8
Shah tepe 8
Shahr-i Sokhta Cop 2500 BC. 8
Tal-i Iblis 4000 BC.- 8
Tepe Yahya [copper] 2200 BC- 8
Tilkin tepe 8
Tilya Tepe 2000-1000 30
1800 BC. Aryan Invasion
Amri 3000 BC.- 20 acres+20 villages 25
Chanhu-daro -1000 BC. 25
Harappa 2500-1700 37.5
Mohenjo-daro -2500- 37.5
Lothal -2500- 15
144 small villages, Indus 1440
Rahman Dheri 25
Prabhasa Patan=Patan Somnath 30
Rana Ghunda 25
38 sites NW Punjab 380
41 Sites Baluchistan 3200 BC.- 250
Lapis Lazuli mine in Baluchistan 0
Sutkagen-dor in Baluchistan 2500- 0
366 sites in Bahawalpur 3660
Ochre Pottery Sites 1800-1200 BC. 0
Painted grayware sites 1200BC- 0
...OTHER INDIA 3772
Other Sites 2207
30 Other Sites 300
50 Chalcolithic Sites 250
Nagas 15 tribes 25
53 Copper Hoards 1800-1200 530
66 Megalithic porthole cists 330
...OTHER INDIA SUBCONTINENT .
Nepal, Bhutan 100
...ARYANS 22 Tribes 2300
Alina [tribe] 100
Anu [tribe] 100
Arjika [tribe] 100
Bharata S. Punjab [tribe] 100
Bhelanas [tribe] 100
Cedi [tribe] 100
Druhyu [tribe] 100
Gandhara [tribe] 100
Kasi [tribe] 100
Kekaya [tribe] 100
Khandara [tribe] 100
Krivi [tribe] 100
Matsya [tribe] 100
Paktha [tribe] 100
Parquata [tribe] 100
Puru [tribe] 100
Rusana [tribe] 100
Siva [tribe] 100
Srnjaya [tribe] 100
Turvasa [tribe] 100
Usinava [tribe] 100
Vischin [tribe] 100
Yadovrcivant [tribe] 100
Kurukshetra, Haryana 1800BC- 0
History of the Indian Subcontinent
This page does not have any moral or point; it merely provides statistics to give insight into the culture and people of Greater India.
Politics in the Indian Subcontinent
1800-1750 B.C. Aryans destroy Harappan civilization
543-491 B.C. King Bimbisa
321 B.C. Start of Maurya Dynasty
27 B.C. - 233 A.D. Andhra Dynastry
40 A.D. Kushan Dynasty
315/20-480 A.D. Gupta Dynasty of North India
606-647 King Karsha conquers all of north India
1000-1175 Mahmud of Ghazni
985-1030 Chola Empire in South India
1414-1451 Sayyid Dynasty
1435 Venetian merchant arrives in Burma
1451-1526 Lodi Dynasty
5/19/1498 Portuguese Vasco de Gama sails to Calicut in Malabar
1511 Portuguese arrive in Burma
1526 Babur founded Mughal Dynasty
1639 British found Madras in India
1690 English found Calcutta
1693 Dutch in India
1693-1751 French in India
1712 Hyderabad founded
1739 Persian Nadir Shah sacks Delhi, India
1748-8/15/1947 British rule India
1756 Afghan Ahmad Shah captures Delhi
8/15/1947 India and Pakistan are independent
1/4/1848 Burma independent of British
11/26/1949 Untouchability outlawed in India
5/1974 India explodes first nuclear device
8/1976 To this date, U.S. gave $4 billion to India
Wars in the Indian Subcontinent
~1800-1750 BC Aryans destroy Harappans in India and Pakistan 1000
543 BC. Sinhalese conquer Veddahs in Sri Lanka
519 BC. Persians conquer Gandhara, India
504 BC. NE Indian Vijaya conquers Sri Lanka
~343 BC. Nanda Mahapadna conquers Kalinga, India
327/326 BC. @Hydraspes Alex with 64K Mac+70K Asiatics vs. Porus 30K 13
326 B.C. Alexander the Great campaigns in India
322-321 BC. Chandragupta overthrows Nandas in Magadha to found Mauryas
305 BC. Chandragupta defeats Seleucus I Nicator of Syria
269-251 BC. Asoka conquers Kalinga in E. India 150K enslaved 100
140-130 B.C. Sakas (Secae, Se) invade West India
82-72 BC. Hindus persecute Buddhists in India
73 BC. Simuka overthrows Susarman in Magadha, India
57 B.C. Partians + the Malava clans of India destroy the Sakas
27 BC. Andhra Dynasty begins in India
50-75 Kushan conquer Suren kingdom in India
**236 Sakas capture all of Western India
**261 Asoka of India devastates Kalinda
315-320 Chandragupta I founds Gupta Dynasty in India
440-465 White Huns finally overrun India
480 White Huns destroy Guptas in India
565 Turks defeat White Huns in India
985 Cholas of India invade Malabar coast of India
993 Indians destroy Polonnaruwa, Sinhalese capital
1000 Rajendra and Cholas sacks Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
1000-1025 Mahmud of Ghazni expands Afghan Empire and raids India
1008 Mahmud of Ghazni defeats north Indian alliance
1011 Mahmud of Ghazni sacks Thanesao, India
1018 Mahmud of Ghazni sack Muttra in north India
1021 Rajendra and Cholas invade Bengal
1025 Cholas of India raid Sri Vijaya in Malaysia
1029 Mahmud of Ghazni defeats Seljuks
1030 Cholas under Rajenda raid Shrivijaya on Malaysia & Sumatra
1084 Muslim Ghazni sacks Somnath, India
1146 Revolt in India kills Zangi
1175 Mahmud of Ghazni fights in India
1215 Indian attack ruins Sinhalese Civilization
1215 Indian armies route Sinhalese
1235 Muslims capture Ujjain, Central India
1301 Juna Khan captures Ranthambhor, India
1301 Juna Khan captures Chitor, India
1305 Juna Khan conquers Malwa, India
1310 Madurai, India destroyed
1324 Sultan of Delhi conquers Kalinga on East Indian coast
1379-1392 Tamerlane in India, massacre at Delhi 80
1403-1438 Chinese occupy Sri Lanka
1472 Muslims capture Goa, India
1477 Jaffna & Kandy free themselves from Kotta in Sri Lanka
1495-1574 Mughal Conquests in India
1526 Spanish sack Indian temple
1526 @Panipat, Babur defeats Sultan Ibrahim Lodi
1526/28-1658 Most of Shan Jahan of India fights in Deccan
1538 @Chunar, India Moguls defeat Bengalis
1565 Bijapur,Bidar,Ahmadnagar,Golconda defeat Vijayanagar-India
6/1576 Battle of Gogünda, Mughal defeats Rajput Singh of Mewar
1613 English drive off Portuguese attack in India
1638-1658 Dutch attack Portuguese in Sri Lanka
1662 Marathas takes Kalyan in India
1686 Mughal Aurangzeeb captures Bijapur, India
1693 Dutch capture Pondicherry, India from French
1739 Persian Nadir Shah sacks Delhi, India
1746-1748 French fleet occupies Madras, India
1748 @Pondicherry I, India English-French
1749 @Devicotta, Bengal Brits defeat Tanjore army
-3/1751 British-French Wars in India
1751 English seize Arcot in India 0.075
1756 Afghan Ahmad Shah captures Delhi
1757 3K Anglo-British defeat 60K Bengali army
1/7/1961 @Panipat Sikh & Marathas defeat Afghan Ahmad Shah
1765 Indian Hyder Ali destroys town of Kozhilode
1775-1782 British defeat Marathas in India
1795-1796 British take Sri Lanka from Dutch
1803 British overthrow Kandy in Sri Lanka
~1805 Pindari raids in India 3.6K tortured, 0.682 killed/wounded 1
1817 Sri Lankans try to rebel against British
1843 Sri Lankans try to rebel against British
1845-1848 Anglo-Sikh wars 2.5 Brits 2.5
2/10/1846 @Sobraon Hugh Gough+15K Brits defeat 20K Sikhs 5-8
1848 Sri Lankans try to rebel against British
1848-2/21/49 Anglo-Sikh wars in India
5/10/1857-6/1859 Indian Sepoy mutiny against British
4/13/1919 @Amritsar, British massacre Indians 1.6
1921 Muslim Moplah revolt in South India
1931 Hindu-Muslim riots in India
3/1944 Japanese invade India after conquering Burma in 1942
1947 Indian, Muslim, and Sikh refugees kill each other in India
1948 Indian army occupies Hyderabad
1948-1949 Muslim revolt in Kashmir
1948-1949 Communists try to take over India
1948-1949 Communists rebel in North Madra and Andhra, India
8/25/1959-1962 Chinese-Indian border War 9.4
12/18/1961 Indian troops take over Goa, Damao, and Diu
7/8/1962 Indian troops advance in Sinkiang, China
10/20-11/20/1962 Chinese defeat Indians and approach the plain of Assam
1/29/1962 Unsuccessful coup in Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
1/26-2/17/1965 Tamils in south India rebel against Hindi being the official language
1965 India and Pakistan fight over the Rann (Bay) of Kutch
3/10/1966 Clashes between Hindus and Sikhs in India
3/12/1966 Food riots in West Bengal, India
4/9/1966 Indian and Pakistani troops fight near the Bay of Cutch
3/1971-9/1971 Revolt in Sri Lanka
3/26/1971-12/16/1971 War between India & Pakistan
1973-1994- Nagaland rebels fight India
1982-1992- Sikhs fight in India 2.3
1983-1995- Sri Lanka Civil War (1993-1995 16K) 34
12/6/1992 Hindus and Muslims fight in India 4.6 wounded 1.21
1983-1995- Sri Lanka Civil War (1993-1995 16K) 34
10/93-8/94- NE Indian Bodo people kill Muslim settlers 0.08
1995 Caste fighting in India 0.032
Religion in the Indian Subcontinent
~1700 B.C. Rig Veda, first Hindu scripture, written 1,028 verses 33 gods
700 B.C. Upanishads written
567 B.C. Buddha born
540 B.C. Vardhamma (Mahavira) founder of Jainism born
184-72 B.C. Persecution and decline of Buddhism
~100 A.D. Christianity in India
~100 A.D. Christianity came to India
325 A.D. Nicene Creed affirmed by a John, bishop of Persia & India
6th cent. Nestorain Christians in Sri Lanka
1542 Francis Xavier comes to India
1656 Jesuit Robert de Nobli translates New Testament into Sanskrit
1706 Lutherans Ziegenbalz and Pluetschau come to India
1725 Ziegenbalg translates Bible into Tamil
1700's Under British Sutti, infant murder, temple prostitution abolished
1700's Sikkhism strong in India
1981 Census of India, 83% Hindu, 11% Muslim, 2.4 % Christian, 2% Sikh, 0.7% Buddhist, 0.5% Jain, 0.4% other. 70% Univ. stud. reject Karma, 60% illiterates accept
Sri Lanka 69.3% Therevada Buddhist 13.2% Saiva Siddhanta Hindu 7.6% Muslim, 7.5% Christian (of whom 90% Roman Catholic)
Pakistaan 96.5% Muslim, 2.5% Christian 1 % Hindu
Famine in the Indian Subcontinent
917-918 A.D. Famine in Kashmir, India
1551 Famine in Delhi, India
1630 Deccan, India (30K in Surat alone) 50
1669-1670 Bengal 3,000
1677 Hyderabad, India
1769-70 Bangladesh, India (65000 or 10000) 8,500
1790-92 South & Central India 7,000
1803-04 W India (drought, locusts) 3
1837-38 NW India (drought) 800
1860-1901 India - Ten famines 15,000
1866 Bengal, Orissa, India (poor distribution) 1,500
1868-70 Northwest & Central India (drought) 10,000 36,000
1876-78 India (drought) 5,000
1896-97 India (drought) 5,000
1899-1900 India (drought) 2,250
1943-44 Bengal, India 1,500
3/14/1958 Floods in Sri Lanka
1958 Drought in Nepal. U.S. gives 20K tons Wheat & Corn
1966 Food riots in West Bengal, India
Plagues in the Indian Subcontinent
~1765-1835 Cholera Goa, India
1815 Black death, India
1896 Plague Bombay, India
1898 Plague Calcutta, India
1898-1907 Cholera India (370K)
1898-1923 Cholera India 11000
1920 Black death, India 2000
1921 Cholera India 500
1924 Cholera India 300
1926-30 Smallpox India 423
1947 Malaria India 1000
1980-1991 870K/yr Bangladesh children 1/3 diarrhea
Vedic, Greek, Roman, and Iranian gods
The Vedas had 33 Vedic deities
Sun god's daughter Surya (one of the 4 key Aryan gods)
Fire Agni (one of the 4 key Aryan gods)
Head god with thunderbolts Indra Zeus Jupiter
also God of sky (one of 4 key Aryan gods)
Lord of creatures Prajapati
Love Aphrodite Venus
Luck, Impossibilities Ganesh
Luck goddess Lakshmi
Storm gods Maruts, including Marici
son of Vishnu and Siva Aiyappa (south India)
Sun god Apollo Apollo
Monkey god Hanuman
Moral order Varuna
Voice Vak Vox
Wind Vayu (one of 4 key Aryan gods)
Parjanya (Indian) Perkunas (Lithuanian) , Perkons (Latvian) god of thunder and fertility
Dyaus (Indian) Dievs (Baltic) sky god. They had other sky gods too
Indra (Indian) Chief deity, thunder (Indra) Zoroastrian demon
When Hinduism first came to Burma, the people thought the caste system was so strange, they called Indians (kala-) the caste people.
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